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Know-how of International Politics




INTERVENTIONS

A life between peace and war
Kofi Annan

Preface


THE ARC OF INTERVENTION
Kofi Annan gives an overview of his work. He tries to use what he has learned in Africa, the interventions, in his work as Secretary.

INTERVENTIONS

Prologue

PEACEKEEPER,
PEACEMAKER

Annan cites the problems in the Middle East as an example of his work. This is a complex situation. Kofi Annan deduces a long-term UN strategy from this.

INDEPENDENCE

African Beginnings

Kofi Annan introduces himself as his father's son. He inherits his personal qualities necessary for UN leadership. He ends up in an African, American and European environment and learns to balance between the different interests. Because the situation in Ghana was disappointing, Kofi Annan decided to serve his country at the WHO in Geneva.


II

PROMISES TO KEEP*

Somalia, Rwanda, Bosnia, and the Trails of Preacekeeping in a World of Civil War

During his work Kofi Annan sees the global situation changing. In 1973 he was sent to Egypt. This conflict was a result of the rapid retreat from empire by the colonial powers after the Second World war.

In 1993 he was seated in a U.S. Militairy helicopter flying over the Somali terrain. This conflict was in principle a result of the hostility between the United States and the Sovjet Union. With this concern in mind the second secretary-general of the UN, Dag Hammarskjöld, institutionalised a practice called "peacekeeping". The principles of paecekeeping were codified in 1973. The possibility of depoying field missions without the full consent of all belligerent parties meant there was a need to be prepared, if necessary to use force. This meant a turn into situations for wich the UN was never intended. It created war management problems. Since 1973 the type of war had changed. Boutros-Ghali as a secretary-general took great pains, in particularly, to control and restrict the flow of information to and from the Security Council. So situations sensitive for serious problems arised:

Somalia

Because of internal power struggels peacekeeping was intiated. Food was delivered at the harbour of Mogadishu. But two US helicopters where shot down. "This ended the geatest experiment ever attempted to use peace enforcement in a mission motivated purely by humanitairain goals."

*The author has investigated the described Peacekeeping situations and concluded the UN organisation is only adapted for limited militairy action. Diplomacy is it's strongest point. The report is available upon request.

To be Continued